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A baseline of a country can be the low water line, a straight baseline (a line that encloses bays, estuaries, inland waters,...) or a combination of the two. On the other hand, while the boundary line declared by North Korea does acknowledge specific non-DPRK island enclaves, its "Military Demarcation Line" in the ocean ("B") is essentially a straight line. In 1972, the U.S. proclaimed a contiguous zone extending from 3 to 12 miles offshore (Department of State Public Notice 358, 37 Fed. 55. Note: Since the "coast line," a term used in the Submerged Lands Act, 43 U.S.C. Inland waters—the zone inside the baseline. EX. [11], The concept of maritime boundaries is a relatively new concept. Coast Pilot, Photo 70: Maritime Zones and Boundaries, including limits of territorial sea, contiguous zone, EEZ and continental shelf. The U.S. normal baselines are ambulatory and subject to changes as the coastline accretes and erodes. Political geography: Definition. border between Malaysia and Indonesia) Textbook. Ships in transit passage may not carry out any research or survey activities without the prior authorization of the States bordering the strait. [1], The zones of maritime boundaries are expressed in concentric limits surrounding coastal and feature baselines. The Plate Tectonics chapter of this Human Geography Help and Review course is the simplest way to master plate tectonics. Some maritime boundaries have remained indeterminate despite efforts to clarify them. Geography. Perhaps the earliest proclamation of the U.S. Three Nautical Mile territorial sea was documented by, Presidential Proclamation No. There are many different types of boundaries. Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Boundaries Vocabulary. 5030 of March 10, 1983). Additional Reference Information: The Area is comprised of the seabed and subsoil beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. [17][20], A western line of military control between the two Koreas was unilaterally established by the United Nations Command in 1953. On one hand, the boundary line created by the United Nations ("A") reflects the geographic features of the coastal baseline. Proclamation 5030 of March 10, 1983. Explained. Generally speaking, the normal baseline is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State. The conditions under which a state may establish such baseline are described in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). built environment definition ap human geography, Seth Dixon's insight: In the 2017 APHG exam, there was a question that dealt with new urbanism and walkability. The only international strait for which the U.S. is unquestionably a strait State is the Bering Strait, which connects the Bering Sea in the Pacific Ocean to the Chukchi Sea in the Arctic Ocean. Controversies about territorial waters tend to encompass two dimensions: (a) territorial sovereignty, which are a legacy of history; and (b) relevant jurisdictional rights and interests in maritime boundaries, which are mainly due to differing interpretations of the law of the sea. Can encourage national integration when Territoriality. Disputes and Maritime Regime Building in East Asia. a boundary that follows a country's coastline 12 miles into the ocean. [1], In the case of overlapping zones, the boundary is presumed to conform to the equidistance principle or it is explicitly described in a multilateral treaty. Maritime boundaries exist in the context of territorial waters, contiguous zones, and exclusive economic zones; however, the terminology does not encompass lake or river boundaries, which are considered within the context of land boundaries. 3 (April 1965), Presidential Proclamation No. 8 Political Geography questionAnnexation answerlegally adding land area to a city in the United States questionAntarctica answerEarth's southernmost continent; world's largest Wherever the outer edge of a coastal State's continental margin extends beyond 200 nm from its baselines, it may establish the outer limit of its continental shelf in accordance with Article 76 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. The boundary runs in a roughly north–south direction and then turns and runs west–east until it almost reaches the 170th meridian east. Subject. 9th Grade. Reg. 12303 (Sept. 28, 1945), S. REP. No. Created . This TED talk from Jeff Speck gives a good sense of what planners believe in new urbanism are trying to do (you can also watch his earlier TED talk, 4 ways to make a city more walkable). ), Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) ARCTIC OCEAN, Total areas under national jurisdiction excluding extended continental shelves beyond 200 nm. Ignored words will never appear in any learning session. let us write you a custom essay sample on. Photo 36: US EEZ limits from Global Perspective  Number each card (19-27). The U.S.-Russia maritime boundary proceeds north and south of the Bering Strait from the mid-point between Little Diomede Island and Big Diomede Island. More difficult for people in remote areas to integrate with rest of the state. The map at the right shows the differing maritime boundary lines of the two Koreas. AP Human Geography Vocabulary Terms from Unit 1. Term. Congressional Research Service, Legal Sidebar. Examples of internal waters include bays, rivers and even lakes that are connected to the sea, e.g., the Great Lakes. Total Cards. The U.S. has claimed a continental shelf that extends out at least 200 nm (Presidential Proclamation No. is approximately 7.7 million km2 (square kilometers), NOAA: Privacy Policy | [1], Contemporary negotiations have produced tripoint and quadripoint determinations. For example, in the 1982 Australia–France Marine Delimitation Agreement, for the purposes of drawing the treaty's equidistant lines it was assumed that France has sovereignty over Matthew and Hunter Islands, a territory that is also claimed by Vanuatu. AP Human Geography: Chapter 5 Vocabulary questionCreolized Language answerDefinition: a language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people (NOAA Coastal Services Center). Created by mbleffish. NOT A STATE. [4], The delineation of maritime boundaries has strategic, economic and environmental implications. Maritime Boundaries a conceptual means of division of the water surface of the planet into maritime areas that are defined through surrounding physical geography or by human geography Median Lines INS, Changing Definition of External Boundary of the United States. Part III of the Law of the Sea Convention (articles 34-45) describes the regime for transit passage through such straits as well as the rights and jurisdiction of the States bordering it. Check the boxes below to ignore/unignore words, then click save at the bottom. Geography. A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria. The boundaries of these maritime zones between coastal States are established through international agreements entered into by those nations. The U.S. EEZ overlaps its claimed 12 nm - 24 nm contiguous zone. Boundary origin: Boundaries often originated from old tribal lands and lands won in war. Special rules for determining the baseline apply in a variety of circumstances, such as with bays, ports, mouths of rivers, deeply indented coastlines, fringing reefs, and roadsteads. The study of treaties on maritime boundaries is important as (a) as a source of general or particular international law; (b) as evidence of existing customary law; and (c) as evidence of the emerging development of custom. Description. Kratochwil, Friedrich V., Paul Rohrlich, Harpreet Mahajan. Information Quality | § 1802(11). International straits are those areas of overlapping 12 nautical mile territorial seas that connect one area of the high seas or EEZ to another area of the high seas or EEZ and are used for international navigation. Donaldson, John and Alison Williams. Special rules for determining the baseline apply in a variety of circumstances, such as with bays, ports, mouths of rivers, deeply indented coastlines, fringing reefs, and roadsteads. In general, every boundary dispute can be classified… Skip to content. Cards Return to Set Details. Fragmented States . Place your numbered cards … Read these flashcards and learn about human geography and take the quiz to see what you learned. Sign up here. The Three Nautical Mile Line, as measured from the territorial sea baseline and previously identified as the outer limit of the U.S. territorial sea, is retained on NOAA nautical charts because it continues to be used in certain federal laws. Each coastal State has a continental shelf that is comprised of the seabed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nm from its baselines where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance (or out to a maritime boundary with another coastal State). Photo 69: Maritime Zones  Most people chose this as the best definition of geographic-boundary-data: (Data West Research Agenc... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. AP Human Geography FRQs From magic .piktochart .com - July 8, 2015 9:20 AM "Based upon student reactions to their multiple choice exams, I can tell that the types of questions are NOT, 'choose the correct definition for the vocabulary term.' As such, it usually bounds areas of exclusive national rights over mineral and biological resources,[1] encompassing maritime features, limits and zones. Level 1 Level 3. For a description of the various U.S. maritime zones, as well as the Three Nautical Mile Line and Natural Resource Boundary, see the NOAA Coast Pilot (Chapter 1 in each volume) or review the information available on NOAA's link to download limits of the  U.S. Maritime Limits & Boundaries (source information for the NOAA nautical charts.) In a very small area, this represents a unique illustration of differences in mapping and delineation strategies. Note: Under certain U.S. fisheries laws, such as the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the term EEZ is defined as having an inner boundary that is coterminous with the seaward (or outer) boundary of each of the individual coastal states of the U.S. See 16 U.S.C. 41. 11906 (June 15, 1972), consistent with the 1958 UN Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone. Meredith A. Westington and Matthew J. Slagel. This family includes Swahili, the lingua franca in Africa, used by many to communicate as a second language, due to so many different native languages. 01/08/2012. As such, it usually bounds areas of exclusive national rights over mineral and biological resources, encompassing maritime features, limits and zones. International Boundaries: A Geopolitical Atlas, "Maritime Jurisdiction in the Three China Seas," p. 3, UC Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. Generally, a maritime boundary is delineated at a particular distance from a jurisdiction's coastline. The Rio Grande forms a large part of the boundary between Mexico and the United States. The transit passage regime does not otherwise affect the legal status of the waters forming an international strait, or the exercise of sovereignty or jurisdiction by the bordering States over the waters, air space, seabed and subsoil of the strait. TOPONYM RESOLUTION meaning - Duration: 2:14. Shapes of States . Developments in the Technical Determination of Maritime Space, "Factbox: What is the Korean Northern Limit Line? fortified boundary. [5], The terms boundary, frontier and border are often used as if they were interchangeable, but they are also terms with precise meanings. (NOAA Coastal Services Center). States bordering international straits may designate sea lanes and prescribe traffic separation schemes for navigation where necessary to promote safe passage of ships. 9th Grade. [1] The historical record is a backdrop for evaluating border issues. Ships in transit passage must comply with the duties set forth in LOSC article 39, which include proceeding without delay and refraining from any activities other than those incident to their normal modes of continuous and expeditious transit. In its contiguous zone, a coastal State may exercise the control necessary to prevent the infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea, and punish infringement of those laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea. Freeman & Co. – Chapter 6 • An Introduction to Human Geography by Pearson – Chapter 8 • Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture by Wiley Press – Chapter 8 This GIS map has been cross-referenced to material in sections of chapters from these texts. Sign up here. Mongolia, between Russia and China) Google Definitions. The definitions have been provided for you on this sheet with each term in the list below. Under the Submerged Lands Act, a coastal state’s seaward boundary may be fixed by Supreme Court decree. AP Human Geography Chapter 8. 1301 et seq., and the baseline are determined using the same criteria under international law, the Three Nautical Mile Line is generally the same as the seaward boundaries of individual U.S. coastal states under the Submerged Lands Act. A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria. What are two examples of this type of region? Previous. AP Human Geography Barron's Ch.5 Vocab. AP Human Geography Review. AP Human Geography Ch. Cards Return to Set Details. The process of establishing "positional" borders encompasses the distinction between previously resolved and never-resolved controversies. Click here to study/print these flashcards. Consistent with these rules, the U.S. baselines are the mean of the lower low tides as depicted on the largest scale NOAA nautical charts. Definition of a ‘boundary ’ –Vertical plane that cuts through the subsoil and the airspace above, divided one state territory from another Therefore, we aren’t just talking about the signs we see that separate states; we are talking about airspace, water, minerals, resources, etc. Additional reference information: Internal waters are the waters on the landward side of the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. Although the Bering Strait is 44 nautical miles wide at the narrowest point between the U.S. and Russian mainlands (Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, and Cape Dezhneva, Siberia), Little Diomede Island (U.S.) and Big Diomede Island (Russia) are located midway between Cape Prince of Wales and Cape Dezhneva. Each coastal State has full sovereignty over its internal waters as if they were part of its land territory. Web Site Owner: NOAA Office of General Counsel, Determination of the U.S. National Baseline, State Practice in Delimiting Maritime Zones, U.S. Maritime Zones and the Determination of the National Baseline, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Certain Foreign Ministers of November 8, 1793, The Three-Mile Limit of Territorial Seas: A Brief History (1972), Reagan Extends Territorial Waters to 12 Miles, Freedom of Navigation and Territorial Seas (May 18, 2015), Notifications of Suspension of Innocent Passage, (64 Fed. The seaward boundaries of Florida (Gulf of Mexico coast only), Texas, and Puerto Rico extend nine nautical miles from the coast line. AP Human Geography Vocabulary Apartheid: a legal system that was the physical separation of different races into different geographic areas My definition: separation of people in South Africa based on race Example: There were apartheid laws in South Africa between around 1950 to 1994. It does not include superjacent waters (i.e., the water column) or the air space above those waters. from the baseline. Political Geography. Contain several discontinuous pieces of territory. 9 (Pacific and Arctic Coasts Alaska: Cape Spencer to Beaufort Sea) (2014, 32nd ed. In the Great Lakes, each U.S. state’s seaward boundary may extend to the international maritime boundary with Canada. [7] There are variations in the specific terminology of maritime boundary agreements which have been concluded since the 1970s. 34. Create your own flash cards! Post navigation. The limits of these zones are officially depicted on NOAA nautical charts. Multilateral treaties and documents describing the baselines of countries can be found on the website of the United Nations. Region: Definition & Types ... Functional regions are those which are connected to a centralized focal point. Territorial Sea of the United States of America. The U.S. claimed a 12 nm territorial sea in 1988 (Presidential Proclamation No. Generally speaking, the normal baseline is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State. chapter 5 ap human geography. Real Geography. The portion of a coastal State's continental shelf that lies beyond the 200 nm limit is often called the extended continental shelf. isolated language. (NOAA Office of Coast Survey), Each coastal State may claim an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) beyond and adjacent to its territorial sea that extends seaward up to 200 nm from its baselines (or out to a maritime boundary with another coastal State). Although in some countries the term maritime boundary represents borders of a maritime nation[3] that are recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, maritime borders usually serve to identify the edge of international waters.

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