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Stacked introductory phrases and dependent clauses also need commas: The next day, ↑ to avoid another argument, ↑ they arrived at the bus stop early. You can see how this works in this introductory phrase example: Galloping quickly, the horse reached the other side of the pasture in less than a minute. Sometimes, these introductory phrases start with “the” instead of “a” or “an.” If the phrase does provide important clarifying information, don’t use a comma. An absolute phrase includes a subject and information about it but not a verb. "After work" is an adverb phrase telling when. It may have a subject or a verb, but it can’t have both. She was upset when it didn't boil. Use them as introductory phrases to give more information about the circumstances in the main clause. Learn introductory phrases english with free interactive flashcards. A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and includes the preposition's object. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. Before you learn how to correctly use and punctuate an introductory phrase, you need to have a clear understanding of what one is and why you would use it in a sentence. . It may also include a direct object of the verb. For example, here are two prepositional phrases that work as adjectives, since they describe the objects in the sentences: The team, with the blue stripes, won the game. "Next door" is an adverb phrase telling where. You can see the proper punctuation in these examples: If an introductory prepositional phrase is made up of fewer than five words and does not require a pause, the comma is optional. Use introductory appositive phrases to give relevant information about the subject of a sentence, not irrelevant information. It has all the pieces of an independent clause except the verb "to be." Introductory phrases set the stage for the rest of your sentence, giving the reader valuable information about what is happening and why. I encourage you to play around and craft your own unique messages. Participle phrases are different from gerund phrases in that participles act as adjectives and gerunds act as nouns. An infinitive phrase begins with the word “to” and includes a verb. There are several different types of introductory phrases, and there are specific rules for using these correctly. Introductory Words, Clauses, and Phrases Introductory Clause Examples: Out of all the things that can be done online, Math homework should not be one of them As soon as I got home from school, I passed out on the couch. Like an infinitive phrase, always set this introductory phrase off with a comma: An absolute phrase also adds information to the main clause, providing context for the reader to interpret the rest of the sentence. Introductory phrases and clauses 1. "To Judy, he gave a gold bracelet." Some style guides allow for short introductory phrases to precede the independent clause of a sentence without a comma if the resulting sentence is short and its meaning clear. Here are … If the phrase is a nice addition to the sentence but is not necessary for clarity, you should use a comma: However, if the introductory appositive phrase is necessary to the sentence, you should not use a comma. As the initial examples demonstrate, introductory phrases with fewer than 5 words may need that comma to simplify the interpretation. These phrases also provide location and other helpful information. An appositive phrase is a noun phrase that describes another noun. Here are examples: He was waiting for the rain to stop. Examples of introductory words: Meanwhile, however, therefore, thus, moreover. INTRODUCTORYWORDS&*PHRASES* Introductorywordsandphrasesareusedastransitionstoprovidebackgrounddetailsconcerningwho,what, when,!where,!why,!and!how. However, like all aspects of the English language, there are a few exceptions. First, the writer may not accurately predict what will be clear or confusing to the reader, so using the comma will reduce the potential for confusion. During the production of the film, the director nearly quit. You might enjoy a massage. The introductory phrases in the following examples are participial phrases, verb phrases headed by the –ing or the –en form of the verb. This is because you pause after the introductory phrase when you say the sentence aloud. Though the flowers were fading, their perfume remained strong. 1.1 Embedded Questions: Introductory Phrases 1.2 Embedded Questions: Examples 1.3 Embedded Questions: Tenses 1.4 Embedded Questions and Contractions 1.5 Embedded Questions: Whether and If 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 It is correct to use a comma and also correct to leave it out, as you can see in the example below: Using an introductory infinitive phrase also provides information to the reader, often about why something is happening. Choose from 500 different sets of introductory phrases english flashcards on Quizlet. An independent clause should follow the introductory word, and needs separated with a comma. Introductory elements consist of clauses, phrases and words that appear before the main clause of the sentence. When you see a subordinating conjunction at the beginning of a sentence, this signals an introductory phrase, and you know a comma is coming at the end of that subordinate phrase, as illustrated in these examples: Because his favorite team lost the Super Bowl, he would not speak to anyone about the game for two years. You can use this as an introductory phrase, giving the reader more information about the subject of the sentence or another noun. Common introductory phrases include prepositional phrases, appositive phrases, participial phrases, infinitive phrases, and absolute phrases. To use it properly, you need to use a comma after the introductory prepositional phrase to set it apart from the rest of the sentence if the phrase is longer than four words. Introductory phrases and clauses John invited Mary to a movie. 1. These examples can clear up any confusion: In general, it’s usually correct to use a comma after an introductory phrase. Commas and Introductory Clauses or Phrases This Grammar.com article is about Commas and Introductory Clauses or Phrases — enjoy your reading! AA phrasephrase is a group of words thatis a group of words that does notdoes not have a subject or a ver The word "to" followed by the base form of a verb is called an infinitive, and it is used to talk about the verb in the abstract, not connected with a subject. As introductory phrases, they usually modify the subject of the sentence. He was eager to eat dinner. Here are some examples of sentences with introductory prepositional phrases: "After work, I like to go out for dinner." How to Start Sentences With Adjective Phrases. She graduated from Syracuse University in 2007 with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in musical theater. Essentially, they prepare your readers for what the sentence is … Mitchell also regularly edits websites, business correspondence, resumes and full-length manuscripts. You should always use a comma after an introductory infinitive phrase, as you can see in these examples: A participial phrase is another form of verb phrase. Verb Phrases A verb phrase consists of a verb and all its modifiers. All Rights Reserved, Introductory phrase horse galloping quickly. Each type serves a distinct purpose within the sentence. Realizing that it was her last meeting with Jared Amy decided to say the words she always wanted to. Clauses, phrases or words that provide extra information. I always use the comma, for two reasons. In the examples below, the introductory phrase contains two prepositional phrases: “during the production” and “of the film.” During the production of the film the director nearly quit. It sets the stage for the main clause, allowing the reader to understand the context of what is happening. In contrast, this introductory clause example includes both a subject and a verb: Because the horse was galloping quickly, he reached the other side of the pasture in less than a minute. X claims Comma to Set Off Introductory Phrases Use commas to set off an introductory phrase that is four or more words. There are five common types of introductory phrases, and it’s important to understand how to use each one correctly. We hope these examples will help you be more confident in your use of introductory clauses. Prepositional Phrases It begins with a preposition and includes it’s object. Gerunds are not commonly used as introductory phrases, but participles are. See how the meaning stays the same? Are there other phrases like this that are confusing? An introductory paragraph, as the opening of a conventional essay, composition, or report, is designed to grab people's attention.It informs readers about the topic and why they should care about it but also adds enough intrigue to get them to continue to read. Mary had seen the movie twice already. Learn when and where to use a comma after an introductory phrase and how to make your writing stand out with just the right words. "To Judy" is a noun phrase Examples: In the middle of the If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Are there other phrases like this that are confusing? There are many types of introductory phrases: 1. Introductory Phrases & Commas Home Punctuation Introductory Phrases & Commas Introductory clauses, phrases and words are: Clauses, phrases or words that are not sentences. If the introductory phrase is less than four words, there is not need to use a comma. Introductory Words: Introductory words are usually adverbs or interjections that provide an introduction to a sentence or paragraph. Stephanie Mitchell is a professional writer who has authored websites and articles for real estate agents, self-help coaches and casting directors. Use introductory infinitive phrases to describe the purpose of the main verb in your sentence. IntroductoryIntroductory Phrases andPhrases and ClausesClauses 2. A participial phrase can be used as an introductory Yes, you are allowed to chew gum balls during class, but don’t complain to me if you break a tooth. Hopefully, you're avoiding the phrases that kill an introductory email -- like "Hi my name is X and I work at Y"-- but which ones should you replace them with? Here are some examples of sentences with introductory prepositional phrases: "After work, I like to go out for dinner." Knowing that their project was due on Monday, Liezl, Maria, This list is not exhaustive but will provide you with ideas of the types of phrases you can use. Use the introductory phrases to ask indirect questions and to know the formal registers when requesting information in English-speaking countries in situations of cordiality. In the sentence, "A great composer, Wagner wrote famous operas," "a great composer" is an appositive phrase describing Wagner. In an introductory prepositional phrase, the sentence starts with a preposition and a few words that follow it. At home we eat ice cream for dessert. "Next door, the woman screamed." Because she had seen the movie twice already, Mary was reluctant to accept Introductory infinitive phrases act as adverbs. . “The other day, I met an old friend.” When writing a sentence, sometimes you may wish to set the scene for your statement by using an introductory phrase. It can act as a noun, adjective or adverb. 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