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However, some degree of common theoretical underpinning is necessary in a nationalised education system, and the work of behaviorists and other classroom management researchers provides a number of potentially useful tools for school policy-makers. -modifying behavior through regulation and discipline. -“Building a Better-Behaved School” (Galvin et.al, 1989) is another model that builds on behaviorist beginnings. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! The source material for this paper, “Behavior Management in Primary Classrooms”, comments on the use of ‘planned ignoring’ in primary schools: “This technique works for minimal off-task behavior that is designed to get teacher’s attention, such as rocking, tapping a pencil, annoying hand waving, handling objects, combing hair, etc”. Because of previous behavioral problems, B had never before been awarded merits, and adopted an enthusiastic approach to managing his behavior in order to achieve this. By encouraging positive behavior (i.e. The key issue here is the extent to which school managers are able to modify government policy and develop alternative approaches based on school-level values and vision. From Chaos to Cooperation in the Elementary Classroom”. Reflecting wider concerns in society about the behavior of young people, the DFES has identified behavior management as one of its key policy areas. Management Process School 2. (Dosani, 2007). This theory belief that employees have only […] Chapters 1 and 2. This school believes that the theory of management rests on the understanding of the interaction of social groups. Thanks for sharing blog on Importance of school management system. Aspects of positive reinforcement can be found in wider society, which strengthens Skinner’s original theory. School management is a process of leading the school towards development through not only the optimum use of the human resources, physical sources, principles and concepts that help in achieving all the objectives of the school but also the proper coordination and adjustment among all of them. The problem with this is that individual teachers also vary in how they apply behavior policy, which can lead to inconsistencies within a school environment. The case study in section 2 provides a clear example of this occurring. study was to establish the perceptions of primary school heads on administration and management of schools in Zimbabwe. When school had only one classroom, it was (being) led by a teacher. School management is an important part of any educational system. The work of Skinner, and of subsequent researchers, has provided useful bac… This theory (and derived theories and policies) account for a large proportion of currently operating behavior management systems in schools. Human Behaviors or Human Relations School 4. However, there are a number of criticisms that can be made of Skinner’s original work, and therefore of the models derived from it. How far, and how effectively, school discipline affects pupils’ behavior in wider society is unclear – and some researchers have argued that societal discipline is de facto the responsibility of all areas of society, and not just the education system. After two weeks, I was asked to meet with a class teacher, and on discussing our approaches to behavior management, it transpired that the class teacher insisted on silence during written work, whilst I encouraged on-task talk as a form of peer-led learning. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. The guidance leaflet for the course states that BATPAC (and the secondary equivalent, BATSAC) form “a rather behaviorist approach, emphasizing the now-familiar Praise and Reward approach of positive teaching, intended for use by trained tutors only”(NCC, 2004). Running effective teaching and learning is the school’s primary responsibility. Behavioural Theory 4. Emmer, E (1980):“Effective Classroom Management at the Beginning of the School Year”. It is unlikely that there will ever be a “universal” school behavior management policy, owing to the vast differences that individuals (both staff and students) bring to the system. C4: Withdrawal from lessons, parents informed and invited to school. Quantitative Management Theory is an offshoot of Modern Management Theory developed during World War II in response to managerial efficiency. Bigge (1976) and others have recorded observations that seem to support the use of Skinner’s system, and in my experience, the rewarding of positive behavior generally encourages subsequent good behavior in the classroom. In scientific management, importance is given to its technical side to increase the efficiency of the organisations. The Classical School of Management Theory chapter of this Introduction to Management Help and Review course is the simplest way to master classical management theory. Fundamentally, Skinner’s approach requires a set of clear and agreed classroom rules, and an associated rewards and punishments system. In my current school (a large secondary in the Midlands), the head-teacher encourages development and discussion of behavior policy by nominating a different member of the senior management team to lead “classroom management” every year, whilst still maintaining overall control to ensure continuity. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. Tauber, R (1988): “Overcoming Misunderstanding about the Concept of Negative Reinforcement.”. note: This module has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and sanctioned by the National Council of the Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a scholarly contribution to the knowledge base in educational administration.. Individual classroom teachers are allowed to decide the extent to which teaching assistants and trainees will assist them in this area, and provide a written statement to the head explaining their decision. It is certainly broader than organization and administration. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Positive Products. It further sought to establish the extent to which primary school heads were conversant with their duties and responsibilities and whether they viewed themselves as either school administrators or school managers or both. However, managing school … Behavior management is an integrated process, and must involve input from all relevant groups if it is to be successful. The study details the response of the teaching assistant supporting A, who uses a combination of techniques (notably positive reinforcement and planned ignoring) to manage difficult situations. VAT Registration No: 842417633. Managers were unsure of how to train employees (many of them non‐English speaking immigrants) or deal with increased labor dissatisfaction, so they began to test solutions. Reference this. Markstein 14 November 2019 at 21:17. In many schools, however, goal setting is a corporate activity undertaken by formal bodies or informal groups. Major Schools of Management Thought The various approaches to the study of management as propounded by specialists from different disciplines have come to be called the Schools of Management Thought. Galvin’s model is the first that attempts to deal with the pupil’s need to learn about appropriate behavior, and therefore starts to meet the second of the criteria mentioned in this paper’s introduction, “influencing extra-curricula behavior”. a) Example of a Classroom management policy. contribution to the knowledge base in educational administration. Within a very short time, C realised that her behavior was not going to be commented on, and joined in the discussion – allowing me to positively reinforce her contributions. Pre-Scientific Management Theory 2. There must also be scope for feedback from staff, pupils and parents. Fuller, B [et.al] (1994): “Raising School Effects whilst ignoring culture?”. Review of Educational Research, 64 (1), 119 – 157. Secondly, and more broadly, Positive Assertive Management imitates wider society’s use of ‘rules’: the people they affect have an input in to their formation and implementation. Decision-making: The head-teacher is ultimately responsible for the policy, and thus will maintain overall control. Because of its limitations, other researchers have developed alternative approaches to behavior policy, with a focus on the broader personal development of the student rather than on responding to behavior ‘as it happens’. This implies mobilisation of all people who are involved and interested in the educational activities of the school, i.e., pupils and their parents, school staff, experts, board of management etc. -Jack (1996) investigated the implementation of a number of different classroom management strategies (including Skinner’s), and found that differences in teachers’ approaches had a defining effect on the success of a strategy. Meanwhile in schools with many classrooms in industrial developed towns and consolidated rural … Pupils’ behavior is influenced by a myriad of factors, including their interactions with staff, parents and wider society, their own personalities, their health problems and their learning environment (Fuller et al, 1994). The theory of human relations prevailed in organizational management until the mid-1950s. Reply Delete. Initially at least, behavior management is a simple requirement of effective teaching, in that behavior that disrupts the learning process conflicts with the basic aims of the teacher. -BATPAC (Wheldall et.al, 1985), or the “Behavioral Approach to Teaching Primary Aged Children” is a model developed from Skinner’s work by researchers at Birmingham University. This theory was opposed to the protagonism of the task, inherited from the scientific vision of Taylor; the structuralism of Fayol; and the bureaucracy advocated by Weber. She states that “some contemporary educators might object to using rewards and punishments to shape behavior”, but asserts that, with the support of teachers who are willing to assess the individual discipline situation, such an approach is still useful. Like Fayol, Barnard based his theories and approach to management on the basis of his first-hand experience as a top-level executive. need. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. The Sumerian civilisation, Egyptian, Chinese, Greek and … School authorities all over the world are continuously engaged in numerous activities to efficiently manage school functions and provide a better educational experience to students. Wragg, E (1993): “Primary Teaching Skills”. The main problem with adopting this policy is that it makes little or no allowance for pupil input, which makes it seem distant from their everyday lives. note: This module has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and sanctioned by the National Council of the Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a scholarly During a recent science lesson, a pupil (C) attempted to interrupt a class discussion that I was leading with irrelevant and attention-seeking remarks. their own educational aims. However, there is little feedback available as to the reception that this model has received, and further work is necessary before it can be recommended as a positive development. Pre-Scientific Management Theories: If we look at recorded history, a number of monumental examples of management can be traced. If the lesson has progressed well, they are permitted to write a small ‘R’ in the relevant space. You can view samples of our professional work here. A balance between fundamental rights and responsibilities is at the heart of behavior management”. There is great debate in the literature about the methods and final aims of achieving acceptable behavior standards in schools. Influence of the school of human relations . Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Posters detailing the “R’s and C’s” system are prominently displayed in all classrooms. ADVERTISEMENTS: Management theories can be classified into four main schools of thought: 1. Study for free with our range of university lectures! Cohen, J [et.al] (1993): “Handbook of School-Based Interventions: Resolving Student Problems and Promoting Healthy Educational Environments”. Jossey Bass Wiley, Page 3. Pages 18 – 37 and 58 – 88. Routledge. Leadership and management are complementary, but it is important to understand how they differ. In other words, his theory of management included, among other things this assumption about the supply of labor. Different School of Management Theories : 1) Classical Theory : One of the first schools of management thought, the classical management theory, was developed during the age of Industrial Revolution during the period from 1900’s to mid-1930. Given the brevity of this study, any conclusions reached can not be said to be conclusive, rather they are indicative of broad trends. The negative reinforcement applied by the class teacher in response to A’s behavior is seen as destructive rather than constructive, a conclusion supported by Wragg (1993). As stated in the introduction, every LEA and each school is expected to maintain a behavior policy, designed to integrate all staff in to a common approach to classroom management. Does the policy provide effective behavior control for classroom management? Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. The chief criticism is that the behaviorist model assumes that pupils act as “units”; that is, that they will all respond to punishment or praise in the same way. I am delighted to come across such an interesting question from my field of study. On a basic level, behavior in each lesson is monitored by a system of ‘Rewards’ ( R’s) and ‘Consequences’ (C’s). A school psychology handbook sums up the Canter’s approach as “ based on the findings that effective teachers are assertive teachers who can express their classroom expectations clearly and firmly and take appropriate action should pupils not meet expectations”. 3.1 The Nature of Theory There is no single all-embracing theory of educational management. Role delegation: This includes defining the role of teachers and assistants in a learning situation, and also describing the responsibilities of wider staff. In other words, teachers reinforce their use of behavior management by explaining why a particular behavior is ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Some of the most important are summarised below: -Butcher (2001) assessed Skinner’s contribution to education, and discussed its integration in to other, more recent work. “More important than the curriculum is the question of the methods of teaching and the spirit in which the teaching is given” – Bertrand Russell. This is probably due to the fact that it does not provide solutions for dealing with anything but mildly bad behavior, although it does provide an updated version of Skinners Behaviorist Approach that makes use of internet an other ICT resources. Croll et.al (1985) stated that “the majority of teachers consider ‘home background’ to be the most significant factor in ‘problem behavior”. The thinker of this school of management necessarily believes that Management is concerned with decision making at all the times. It directs group efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. Does the policy influence extra-curricular behavior? Gunter, P (1997): “Negative Reinforcement in Classrooms”. Teacher Education and Special Education, 20 (3), 249 – 264. The relevance of theory should be judged by the extent to which it informs managerial action and contributes to the resolution of practical problems in schools and colleges. It is an extension of Skinner in that it focuses on actually teaching positive behavior, instead of just rewarding it. Sage Publications, Chapter 1. Each head-teacher is expected to have a system in place which: Such a system, however, is necessarily only “part of the story”. Rules and Sanctions: These must be defined in advance so that both teachers and pupils know where they stand. Choose a delete action Empty this pageRemove this page and its subpages. There is little else as destructive to a co-ordinated policy as inconsistency, as neither pupils or staff have a firm base mark for determining what is acceptable or unacceptable behavior. A shows attention-seeking behavior in the classroom environment, which observation suggests may stem from difficulties with the understanding of written and spoken instructions, and feelings of insecurity owing to these difficulties. -Emmer (1980) investigated the importance of the first few weeks of the school year in establishing a positive classroom management stance, and highlighted “the central role of rule setting” in successful teaching: this aspect of Skinner’s theory had not previously been comprehensively reviewed. Theoretical behavior models require intelligent adaptation by practitioners to ensure that behavior management policies produce the best possible results for all concerned. Thus, school/classroom management • Is a process As these remarks were not loud or rude, I decided to simply ignore this behavior, and concentrate on positively reinforcing the cooperative responses of other pupils. The benefits of this approach are twofold: firstly, pupils gain a clear understanding of the aims of the school behavior policy by linking rules to reasons. School and college aims are inevitably influenced by pressures ema-nating from the wider educational environment and lead to the The importance of leadership and management for education 3 8721 restyle 3.qxd 09/08/2010 17:15 Page 3 Rockwell, S (2006):“You can’t make me! Particular caution in applying negative feedback is necessary when faced with attention-seeking behavior, where it may feed a child’s desire for attention and therefore be counter-productive. Wolfgang, C (2001):“Solving discipline and classroom management problems”. John Wiley & Sons. No plagiarism, guaranteed! A further development, examined in the next paragraph, attempts to remedy this by proposing an assertive management policy that is school-wide. Wheldall, K [et.al] (1985): “The Behavioral approach to teaching package (BATPACK)”. and responsibilities are addressed. attention to school leadership and management, recognising their importance in developing a fully functional system, which would improve school and learners’ outcomes. Academics and business owners periodically come up with theories for increasing worker output while keeping the same number of workers through modern management theories. It will be noted that in this example, the teacher did not strictly follow Skinner’s formula in that B’s negative behavior was not punished. Although merely a brief introduction, this summary gives an idea of how aspects of many different theories, as well as the ideas of many relevant staff, can be collated in to a school behavior policy. 3rd Aug 2018 The results of this study show aspects of value in the many different models of behavior management currently in use. Modern Management Theory. The students have their personal information and their academic records in the future in one data base. Breaking of a rule is recognised by application of a punishment, and particularly good work is reinforced by a reward. The authors state that the impact of a good behavior policy “largely comes through being clear, teaching appropriate behavior and giving positive feedback when pupils are behaving appropriately”. These purposes or goals provide the crucial sense of direction which. 2 nd Edition. During this period the classical theories of organization began to emerge. colleagues and perhaps a small group of lay stakeholders. Butcher, K (2001): “Exploring the foundations of middle-school classroom management”. Leadership and management must go hand in hand, but they are not the same thing. Teaching of Psychology, 15 (3), 152 – 3. More importantly, the need for an integrated approach (involving school, home and the wider community) when applying behavioral policy is emphasised; these conclusions were supported by evidence from case-studies and from my own teaching experience. The reward and punishment system becomes an integral part of the school routine, but is “left at the school gate” in the same way that uniform rules are not seen as applying outside of the classroom. The main aim was to critically analyse strategies which schools and individuals (teachers, support staff and children) use to manage behavior and to consider how behavior management might (or might not) lead to children learning generally appropriate behavior. Rather, it has provided an overview of two of the main theoretical approaches, and has investigated developments therein. 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